The risk of enteric fever (caused by typhoid or paratyphoid infection) in travellers is now declining in most countries.
This is partly due to improved, local awareness of kitchen hygiene with regard to housefly control and hand washing, and partly due to vaccination.
Based on the latest, international evidence, Health Protection Scotland has therefore downgraded the risk advice to most travellers to recommend typhoid vaccination as ‘usually advised’ only to travellers to the following countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan.
For travellers to other countries, typhoid vaccination is still: ‘sometimes advised’ if:
- Venturing off the usual tourist routes to visit smaller villages, cities and rural areas where access to adequate sanitation and safe drinking water may be limited
- Visiting friends and relatives
- Unable to take sufficient care with food and drink, e.g. children
- Considered to have increased susceptibility to infection or severe outcome
- Long stay travellers
We at TrExMed offer two types of typhoid vaccine: injectable (single or in combination with Hepatitis A) and oral capsules (Vivotif).